Latest Theories On Obsity, Cardio Vascular Disease, Breast Cancer Prevention, And More!

By Will Brink

The Experimental Biology Conference (FASEB) was held this year in New Orleans. The FASEB conference brings in scientists from all over the world, with more then 10,000 in attendance this year. Topics covered are wide ranging, including topics aging, cancer, cardio vascular disease, weight loss, and genetics, to name just a few. It’s truly the place many of the worlds’ top scientists converge to discuss and display the most cutting edge research in their respective areas of focus.

Various scientific societies make up the FASEB conference: The American Association of Anatomists; The American Physiological Society (APS): American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB); American Society for Investigative Pathology (ASIP): American Society for Nutrition (ASN); American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET); are all represented at FASEB.

Needless to say, this is a big conference! A great deal of the information presented at FASEB is of direct relevance to people here and now, some of which can be applied to their everyday lives in their quest for a healthier longer life. Much of the research directly supports what we already know; various naturally occurring compounds can prevent disease both directly and or indirectly. What follows is a small sample of some of the more relevant information readers may find useful to their goals of better health and longer life.

Because the shear amount of research that existed, coverage of each will be short and sweet…

Inflammation and CVD; New theories on obesity:

A fascinating symposium called “Nutrition in Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease” examined the role of inflammation in both cardio vascular disease as well as obesity and the cluster of metabolic issues that is Syndrome X or Metabolic Syndrome. That an essential step in the etiology of CVD is chronic inflammation is not a new concept per se, but more recently embraced by the scientific and medical community. One of the more interesting topics in this symposium was the issue of adipocytes (fat cells) as the main drivers of inflammation both locally and systemically and the role that plays in CVD and other diseases.

Fat cells have now become a major focus as highly active cells that control a wide variety of metabolic functions and feedback mechanisms in the human body that leads to CVD, diabetes, and other ailments. Most interesting is the new paradigm that obesity may be partly an inflammatory disease. More interesting is the theory that obese people suffer mild endo-toxemia. Endotoxins are associated with bacteria and cause inflammation. It’s been found that endotoxin levels are elevated in obese people, and these endotoxins cause a low-grade inflammation which interacts with fat cells, causing a viscous cycle. The exact cause and effect of increased endotoxin levels found in obesity is unclear at this time, but researchers are putting considerable effort into finding the answer and this symposium went a long way to connecting the dots on the role inflammation plays in CVD, Metabolic Syndrome, and possibly obesity. It was also noted that people with inflammatory diseases also suffer higher rates of CVD, so the link is well established and the mechanisms better understood. It was also clear from a verity of talks given that known natural anti-inflammatory compounds found in fish oils, green tea, cinnamon, and others may mitigate the inflammation in these chronic inflammatory states.


SIDE BAR: Nutrigenomics

Without a doubt, the most cutting edge research looking at the relationship between what we eat – be it food or supplements – and the benefits we derive, is the science of nutrigenomics. As the name implies, nutrigenomics looks directly at how nutrients interact with our genes. Wikipedia defines it as “the study of molecular relationships between nutrition and the response of genes, with the aim of extrapolating how such subtle changes can affect human health.” Some of the nutrients we eat are very powerful modulators of our genes. Perhaps one of the best defined at this time are the fatty acids found in fish oil; EPA and DHA. These two fatty acids have various health benefits that actually works on the genetic level. To show just how exiting and powerful this area of research is, one speaker commented that the active constituents found in fish oils (EPA/DHA) could actually nullify the genetic disposition some people had for developing Syndrome X and cardio vascular disease. This is an extremely promising and important finding. The science of nutrigenomics is very much in its early stage, and genetics is a complex topic, but it was very much in the forefront of the FASEB conference. Research is ongoing, and this area of research will yield the most essential results in the history of human kind to human health and longevity!

Green Tea plus Vitamin D3 and bone loss:

Osteopenia is a condition where bone mineral density is lower than normal and is considered to be a precursor to osteoporosis. Chronic low grade inflammation is also known to be an essential part of bone loss in some cases, and it’s well established that people with acute inflammatory diseases suffer from higher rates of osteoporosis. A symposium entitled “Models for Bone Health” presented data that tested the effects of green tea polyphenols and vitamin D3 in animals which followed a human model of low grade inflammation negatively impacting bone health. These researchers found both D3 and Green Tea polyphenols decreased bone loss and decreased inflammation. However, when combined the effect was more pronounced, showing a true synergism between the combination of green tea polyphenols and vitamin D3 on bone health. The combination increased bone mineral density (BMD), reduced oxidative stress, reduced inflammation and DNA damage and positively impacted hormones known to control BMD.

Flax Lignans and Auraptene, a powerful agent against breast tumors:

A symposium that looked at how the diet may effect cancer called “Diet and Cancer” had a presentation that looked at the effects of flax and sesame lignans on estrogen receptor-positive human tumor cells. The researchers implanted mice with human breast cancer cells and added estrogen to encourage the growth of these cells. They then fed the mice either flax lignans or sesame lignans (vs. a control group) to see what effects either had on tumor growth. It was found the flax lignans were most effective and reduced breast cancer cell proliferation, and increased the rate of programmed cell death (apoptosis) of human breast cancer cells. Sesame lignans were found to be much less effective then lignans from Flax.

The researchers made note that it’s unclear at this time if the effects they found come directly from the lingans – and or other compounds found in flax – or if the effect is due to metabolites formed from these naturally found constituents of flax during digestion and metabolism, and research is ongoing. Meanwhile, people can enjoy the health benefits from flax lignans and wait for science to figure out why!

Another natural agent derived from citrus fruits called Auraptene has been shown to be a powerful agent against breast cancer. A known carcinogen scientists use to cause cancer in animals is called N-methyl nitrosourea. Researchers find this naturally derived compound to be highly chemoprotective* against various cancer drugs while being toxic to cancer cells, in both in vitro (test tube) and in vivo (living animals) and decreased breast cancer cell proliferation by over 50% when breast cancer was induced via N-methyl nitrosourea. Auraptene may turn out to be one of the most powerful natural anti cancer agents yet found according to researchers speaking at this symposium.

The many benefits of Omega-3 fatty acids:

As readers of the LEF magazine know well by now, Omega-3 lipids offer a wide variety of health benefits. A symposium entitled “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Health” added additional information to the ever growing body of research that shows these fatty acids should be a staple to anyone’s longevity/health program. In fact, the first speaker to this symposium started out by making the bold statement that life span is inversely related to Omega-3 tissue levels. It’s been well characterized that much of what takes place in aging and disease happens at the level of the mitochondria, the part of our cells where energy is generated. The researchers outlined how Omega-3 lipids – more specifically EPA/DHA – appear to play an essential role in mitochondrial function by altering cell membranes. It’s been found the ratio of these fatty acids in the mitochondrial membrane is essential to the optimal function of the mitochondria.

Animals genetically altered to have higher ratios of Omega-3 to Omega-6 lipids in their tissues, have greatly reduced levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), a primary cause of oxidative stress to tissues, and a cause of mitochondrial aging and dysfunction. These animals suffer less oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial function.

Perhaps one of the most interesting research presented at this symposium was the discovery that Omega-3 lipids are neuro-protective acutely. It’s well known that the chronic intake of omega-3 lipids is neuro protective, but research was presented that showed it’s also neuro protective in animals suffering cerebral hypoxia (lack of oxygen to the brain) which is what happens during a stroke even if the animals had not been fed omega – 3 lipids prior to the stroke! This is an amazing finding and could save the lives of millions of stroke victims or at the very least could reduce the amount of tissue damage they suffer from the stroke.

Two groups of animals were fed their normal chow, then suffered strokes and cerebral hypoxia, which is what happens in stroke victims which leads to brain tissue death. One group of animals was given an emulsion of EPA/DHA immediately after their stroke, and the effects were quite striking. The animals who did not get this emulsion had significantly more brain injury, less preserved living brain tissue and had much greater neuronal loss compared to the animals given the EPA/DHA emulsion. The researcher showed via actual brain tissue slices, the animals given the emulsion suffered less edema (another damaging effect of stroke), and far less brain damage/tissue death compared to those that didn’t get the Omega-3 fatty acids.

This research shows these amazing fatty acids have both chronic and acute benefits, and a first line therapy for greatly reducing brain damage due to strokes – which is the third leading cause of death in the US and costs approximately 70 billion dollars per year – may be giving them such an emulsion as soon as possible after a stroke. It’s unclear if an oral dose of fish oil caps would have similar effects, but it may be worth trying in this writers opinion…


The above is a very small sample from a very large conference. As the reader can see, great strides are being made in understanding what natural compounds can do for all that ails humanity. This writer will continue to follow the cutting edge science as it first appears at similar conferences with readers reaping the benefits of fast-as-possible communication of research to practical application.

* = chemoprotective agents are drugs which protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs.

About the Author: Build muscle, build strength, and do it naturally: Find out more at Will Brink is a well known health/fitness/bodybuilding author and researcher who has published all over the world. He runs the highly popular web site


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18 July

The History, Recent Trends And Future Of Cosmetic Surgery

The History, Recent Trends and Future of Cosmetic Surgery



Plastic and cosmetic surgery has been practiced by surgeons since 800 BC. A surgery procedure, now known as rhinoplasty, was performed to restore noses of people in India. But Plastic surgery didn’t become popular until 20th century when surgeons used this procedure to restore physical deformities caused by war. Cosmetic surgery, a procedure that’s reshapes and enhances perfectly normal body is consequential to plastic surgery. The wars caused too much damaged that it increased the innovation of plastic surgery and this gave the window of opportunity for cosmetic to surgery to boom in the industry. The surgeon’s realized that aside from fixing deformities, they could also enhance beauty through surgery. They then developed body enhancement techniques such as breast augmentation, liposuction, and tummy tuck, in addition to facial surgeries.

There is a wide variety of cosmetic surgeries from facelifts, tummy tuck to rhinoplasty. Almost every part of the human body can be enhanced through it. Before, this procedure was for the rich and elite and was then considered as a taboo. Overtime it has been socially accepted and is even performed on a wide variety of social classes. It has increased its popularity due to the demand and the need for people to look better and improve their current physical state. With this reason, it is now a billion dollar industry.


Plastic and cosmetic surgery in Denmark, or “plastik og kosmetisk kirurgi”, as it is termed in local parlance, is gaining increasing popularity in the country. It is, but one, of the myriad manifestations of the health and fitness drive. The economic boom witnessed by the country, in the past few years, has also made the affordability factor less of a consideration. Indulgence in cosmetic beautification has gripped the young and elderly, both men and women, and touched towns, cities and the countryside, all alike.

Already about 320,000 Danes have been under the knife, in other words, 8 % of the total adult population of Denmark – and the numbers are projected to rise even further. Latest research indicates a 20 % to 30 % projected increase in the coming years of the number of Danes looking for cosmetic surgery. Interestingly, every fifth female over the age of 17 is actively considering getting cosmetic surgery done, whereas every tenth female has already had cosmetic surgery done. Eighty percent of all Danes find the notion of cosmetic surgery fully acceptable. At present, about 30,000 cosmetic surgeries, per annum, are performed nationwide.

There are issues and concerns raised as to whether it should be banned. If it will be legally banned, some experts say that it will still continue in the black market and this is because cosmetic surgery has now become the solution for every problem in the aspect of beauty. While some people who are in favor of plastic surgery feel that the actions taken to improve the aesthetic part of the human body is just a form of vanity, there are people who’s lives are changed because of cosmetic surgery. But then the issue of cosmetic surgery boils down to freedom of choice. As long as people desire to achieve perfection, the cosmetic and plastic surgery industry will continue to evolve.

Read about

Cosmetic Surgery India

also read about

Plastic Surgery India


Cosmetic Surgeon Chandigarh

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15 November

Bad Breath Causes And Bad Breath Cure Using Natural Home Remedies

Submitted by: Dr Charles Buchar

Halitosis is the scientific term for bad breath, which is unarguably one of the most detrimental conditions to a person’s personal and social progress. Bad breath occurs due to decays of food effectuated by microorganisms in the mouth, which release several gases. These gases are mingled in the breath making it foul. Sometimes, the breath can be so foul that it becomes unbearable for other people to come in close communication with the sufferer.

Medically, halitosis is known as oral malodor, and it almost always originates in the oral cavity. The decay could occur in the teeth, gums or even on the tongue. Generally, bacteria are responsible for oral malodor.

Causes of Bad breath

1.Poor Gums

2.Eating Greasy Food





6.Cavity in a tooth

Home remedies for Bad Breath

1.Chewing mint leaves will soon freshen up the breath and is simple home remedy for bad breath.

2.Brushing teeth after every meal will prevent bad breath.

3.Gargle with baking soda dissolved in warm water. It can also be used for cleaning tongue. This remedy is one of the good home remedies for bad breath.

4.Drinking a hot cup of unsweetened tea will help curing bad breath.

5.After meals chew some sunflower seeds and drink a glass of water. This is a good natural remedy for bad breath.

6.Eating yogurt for 6 weeks will completely remove bad breath.

7.A good natural remedy for bad breath is tea made from Fenugreek (methi) seeds.

8.Chewing one clove after meals daily will help dealing with bad breath.

9.Squeeze a lemon in a glass of water and gargle frequently. Good home remedy for bad breath

10.Drinking pineapple juice will soon vanish the foul smell from the mouth and acts as natural remedy for bad breath.

11.Eating apples daily is also good for mouth purification as it removes the bacteria causing bad breath.

12.Chew cardamom seeds to sweeten your breath as the aromatic flavour of cardamom acts as a breath freshner. This remedy is also good home remedy for bad breath.

13.Mouthwashes containing, dyes and alcohol should be avoided as they only provide temporary relief.

14.Eat parsley to reduce bad breath.

15.Rinse juice of half a lemon with a glass of water after every meal. This is one of the effective home remedies for bad breath.

16.Intake of food products that are rich in zinc prevents bad breath as it keeps the check on the anaerobic bacteria in the mouth.

17.Chewing cardamom seeds also sweetens the breath.

18.Before brushing use hydrogen peroxide to rinse the mouth.

Curing Bad Breath – Through your daily diet

Calcium, phosphorous, vitamins A and D help to keep the mouth healthy, while vitamin C prevents bleeding of the gums. Your daily diet should include citrus and other fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, milk and mill products, like youghurt and cottage cheese and unrefined cereals. Food that you can eat raw, like fresh fruits, salads and sprouts, not only cleanses the teeth. But also help to exercise the gums and teeth, because they have to be chewed.

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3 November

A Lesser Known Mineral, But Potassium Is Vital For Every Single Cell

By Steve P Smith

Potassium is one of the most important minerals for human health, playing an essential role in maintaining the correct electro-chemical balance in cells and the proper functioning of cell membranes. This role makes potassium vital for muscle contraction (including the heart muscle), the transmission of nerve impulses, the regulation of blood sugar levels and the synthesis of vital proteins and acids. The maintenance of proper potassium levels within cells, particularly in relation to the corresponding levels of sodium, is consequently crucial for the well-being of the organism.

Clinical potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) is therefore a serious and even potentially fatal medical problem. Fortunately it is hardly ever seen in the generally healthy population, but has been encountered in alcoholics, anorexics and bulimics, those taking certain types of diuretic drug, those suffering from illnesses causing vomiting or diarrhea, and, believe it or not, those given to consuming large quantities of licorice.

But although outright hypokalemia is thankfully very rare, there’s evidence that many people obtain insufficient dietary potassium for optimum health; and that this insufficiency may expose them to an increased risk of chronic diseases, including hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease, osteoarthritis and even cancer.


Ample evidence of the importance of potassium is provided by the fact that around a third of the body’s at rest energy expenditure is used in maintaing the potassium/ sodium balance in cells Most people are now familiar with idea that a high sodium (salt) intake is one of the main risk factors for the development of high blood pressure, a serious condition if left untreated, but known as the ‘silent killer’ because of lack of obvious symptoms.

Many nutritionists now believe, however, that it is not so much high sodium, but low potassium which may be the real culprit and a substantial body of research evidence supports the idea that a diet rich in potassium will indeed help prevent high blood pressure. The importance of this should not be underestimated, as high blood pressure is strongly associated with an increased risk of stroke – still one of the biggest killers in the West.

It almost goes without saying the that profile of the modern Western diet is far from helpful in this regard. A diet high in processed foods is one likely also to be very high in sodium; and a relatively low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is also likely to mean a relatively low intake of dietary potassium. It follows, therefore, that the proportion of sodium to potassium consumed by the typical modern Westerner is almost certainly far higher than ever before in human history; and it is not unreasonable to suppose that that this new imbalance may be a causative factor in some of the degenerative ‘diseases of affluence’, sadly so characteristic of modern urban societies.

By far the best way to ensure an adequate intake of dietary potassium is to consume a diet rich in fresh fruit and vegetables; particularly good sources being bananas and potatoes (in their jackets). Fresh fruit juices, including tomato and orange, also provide a good supply, as do green vegetables such as spinach and dried fruits such as raisins. Soil depletion, however, means that even these foods are poorer in minerals, potassium included, than they used to be; and research suggests that most adults eating a typical Western diet obtain only around 2,000- 3,000 mg of potassium a day.

This figure needs to be set against the adequate intake established by the US Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board of 4,700 mg. And it should also be noted that for those consuming a typical modern diet, high in refined and processed foods, the potassium requirement will be even higher because of the very high sodium content of such a diet. For athletes, and those undertaking strenuous physical work, or intensive exercise programmes, the requirements may be still higher because of greater losses of potassium from the body during these activities.

Nevertheless, nutritional therapists do not generally recommend commercially available potassium supplements, as these normally contain quantities too low to be effective. But high dose supplements are in any case potentially dangerous, as they may have profound effects on the body’s biochemical balance, and should therefore not be taken except under medical supervision. Where the diet is inadequate in potassium, however, this may be simply remedied by using as a food seasoning a low sodium/high potassium salt substitute available from any good supermarket.

As always, however, the body’s holistic functioning means that potassium works best in the presence of a good supply of every other vital nutrient and so it is always worth taking a good quality and comprehensive multi-vitamin/multi-vitamin preparation.

About the Author: Steve Smith is a freelance copywriter specialising in direct marketing and with a particular interest in health products. Find out more at


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6 August

Are Cosmetic And Plastic Surgery The Same Thing

Are Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery the Same Thing


Dale Traser

Many people mistake cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery as being the same procedures. However, the two operations have marked differences. While both surgeries alter the way people look, the reasons people undergo either procedure varies. Before patients contact their surgeon for a surgical consultation, they may want to be aware of the differences between cosmetic and plastic surgery.

People who consider cosmetic surgery, in fact, often do so because they want to make a superficial change to their bodies. Common cosmetic surgeries include breast enhancements, tummy tucks, and liposuction. These procedures enhance the way a person\’s body appears and allows people to look more fit and appealing. Most patients opt for this kind of surgery because they regret the way a certain body part looks or they want to undo the damage brought on by childbirth, aging, or lack of exercise.

Despite most patients having no urgent medical need for this kind of surgery, cosmetic surgery still holds an important part in the medical community. People who suffer from low self-esteem or depression often benefit greatly from this procedure and are able to live improved lives after they recover from their cosmetic alteration.


On the other hand, plastic surgery often comes into play when patients have a pressing medical need for such an operation. This procedure is used when people have birth defects or suffer from damaged body parts due to an accident,injury, or illness. Plastic surgery also allows people to look and feel better; however, people generally do not undergo this operation for superficial purposes. They need this surgery to allow them to escape pain and to resume a normal way of living.

Unlike cosmetic surgery, which is often only applicable to patients over a certain age, plastic surgery can be performed on patients of all ages. While cosmetic surgeons often stipulate that their clients be over the age of 18, plastic surgeons perform their procedures on the youngest of patients, including newborn babies. Plastic surgery corrects abnormalities that may arise from birth defects, making this procedure necessary for an infant\’s survival.

Likewise, burn victims and people who have been injured on the job or in an accident often rely on plastic surgeons to help them recover from such damage. Plastic surgeons can graft skin to cover burns and scars. They can reconstruct a person\’s nose that has been damaged due to an accident. As with cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery also holds great importance in the medical community. However, the patients who opt for these procedures often do so as a way of recovering from a defect or devastating injury.

Cosmetic and plastic surgery both involve altering the way people\’s bodies appear. They both involve many of the same risks and benefits. However, the two operations differ in the kinds of patients both serve. When people want superficial changes, but have no underlying medical need, they often choose cosmetic surgery. People who suffer from physical damage due to defects, injuries, or illnesses typically opt for plastic surgery procedures.

The team at

Facial Cosmetic Surgery

2303 4 Street Southwest #803, Calgary, AB T2S 2S7, Canada +1 403-450-3759 offers clients a wide range of surgical and non-invasive cosmetic procedures, from rhinoplasty to botox, and filler injections. If you want to learn more about Facial Cosmetic Surgery

click here


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21 May

Fad Facelifts}

Fad Facelifts



Our Scottsdale facelift, Gilbert Facelift, and Phoenix Facelift patients present asking about the Lifestyle Lift? Stem Cell Facelift, Beverly Hills Facelift, and the Scottsdale facelift procedures. This groundswell of interest in Fad facelifts is a result of the sophisticated marketing efforts of those surgeons who promote these neuveau facelift operations. Well trained Phoenix Plastic Surgeons, such as the four on staff here at North Valley Plastic Surgery, will always recommend the best combination of procedures for their patient, regardless of bias, trends, or their own economic interests. Rather than have our patients ask for a particular procedure, we would like to hear about what specific signs of aging concern each one of our patients. This approach allows us to draw upon our expertise and choose the specific procedure, or procedures, that will most effectively and precisely address each and every patient concerns. Quite simply, when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail! Our individualized and customized approach to your facial aging concerns will result in the best possible outcome that will address your concerns precisely and appropriately.


The Lifestyle Lift?procedure is marketed as a 1-2 hour operation done with the patient awake under purely local anesthesia. The operation itself uses a limited dissection coupled with placement of large braided sutures into the facial muscle layer (the SMAS) to tighten the cheeks. The neck skin and fat are not addressed unless you pay extra money! The Lifestyle Lift?was designed by a Troy, Michigan Otolaryngologist (ENT) who, as far as we know, has not completed a residency training program in Plastic Surgery! The numerous ranchisees?scattered about the country include other ENT and surgeons of all specialties. The Lifestyle Lift?company was fined by the New York State Attorney General for having their staff make false internet postings posing as satisfied patients! We believe that the Lifestyle Lift?is a very poor choice for anybody who wants to have an artfully done, elegant, and beautiful facial rejuvenation procedure. Again, hen all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail! The Stem Cell Facelift has been marketed by certain surgeons as a unique and special new operation when all it really appears to be is a face lift coupled with autologous fat transfer. Harvesting fat from another body region and grafting it into the face to correct volume deficiencies is an accepted technique that all of our Phoenix Plastic Surgeons and Scottsdale Plastic Surgeons here are fully trained and well experienced in. Yes, there are stem cells in fat! That is an accepted fact. But, is re-naming a standard procedure as something new, unique, and special really helpful? Is that sort of reinterpretation really in your best interests? Or is it just another marketing strategy designed to drum up business?

The Beverly Hills Facelift, and the Scottsdale facelift procedures have also been marketed over the years and they are also just permeations of the standard facelift procedures.

Yes, we do perform the Stem Cell Facelift here at North Valley Plastic Surgery! But, we only offer this operation to the appropriate candidates. We customize our approach to each and every patient so that we achieve the best possible outcome and precisely address your concerns. By choosing to have your Scottsdale facelift, Gilbert Facelift, or Phoenix Facelift with one of our formally trained Plastic Surgeons here at North Valley Plastic Surgery, you will ensure that your surgeon is properly trained and quite well experienced in facial rejuvenation surgery. All four of our Plastic Surgeons are trained in both General surgery and Plastic Surgery and will address your concerns in a customized manner. We will explain all of your options in an understandable way and, thereby, allow you to make an educated and informed decision. We feel that our patient first opportunity to choose the best surgeon, the best operation(s), and the best time to have their surgery are the most important choices. For more information regarding face lifts please visit us online at

Steven Gitt, MD, FACS North Valley Plastic Surgery. 20950 North Tatum Blvd. Suite 150 Phoenix, Arizona. 85050

For more information regarding face lifts please visit us online at

.North Valley Plastic Surgery additional services can be found online at


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1 March